Databases with regard to books searching�

How To Do An Effective Literature Search In 5 Steps

The purpose of thorough and comprehensive literature searches is to avoid missing key studies and to minimize bias since a systematic review based only on published studies may have an exaggerated effect size . Felson sets out potential biases that could affect the estimate of effect in a meta-analysis and Tricco et al. summarize the evidence concerning bias and confounding in systematic reviews . Egger et al. point to non-publication of studies, publication bias, language bias and MEDLINE bias, as key biases .

To read original research studies, look for articles in scholarly journals and conference proceedings. They will provide articles written by information technology professionals who are reporting original research; that is, research that has been done by the authors and is being reported for the first time. The audience for original research articles is other information technology scholars and professionals.

Begin writing down terms that are related to your question. PubMedTopic-Special Queriespage provides specialized pre-limited PubMed searches on different topics and research areas that save your time to construct the search queries. It can be used to validate information found in tertiary sources or provide more depth about a topic. Search terms should be combined in the search strategy using Boolean operators. Boolean operators allow standardised search terms and free-text terms to be combined. There are three main Boolean operators – AND, OR and NOT (Fig. 3).

You know you’ve exhausted a literature review when you see the same articles and books over and over again as you search – in databases, in reference lists, etc. Then you know it’s time to begin reading and synthesizing all that you’ve collected. Your literature review should be guided by a central research question. Remember, it is not a collection of loosely related studies in a field but instead represents background and research developments related to a specific research question, interpreted and analyzed by you in a synthesized way.

A narrow question will produce a narrow and precise search, perhaps resulting in too few studies on which to base a review, or be so focused that the results are not useful in wider clinical settings. Using an overly narrow search also increases the chances of missing important studies. A broad question may produce an imprecise search, with many false-positive search results. These search results may be too heterogeneous to evaluate in one review. Therefore from the outset, choices should be made about the remit of the review, which will in turn affect the search.

For example, you could search something like, “female archetypes” or “female tropes.” You could also search a particular trope or archetype that’s been critiqued by film critics. You may want to search for something like, “mother figure” or “manic pixie dream girl.” EndNote helps you overcome research limitations by synchronizing library changes every 15 minutes. That means your team can stay up-to-date at any time of the day, supporting an easier, more successful collaboration. Sharing references is essential for successful collaboration.

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